**OVERVIEW**

This indicator automatically detects and draws bullish Cassiopeia A harmonic patterns and price projections derived from the ranges that constitute the patterns.

Cassiopeia A, B and C harmonic patterns are patterns that I created/discovered myself. They are all inspired by the Cassiopeia constellation and each one is based on different rotations of the constellation as it moves through the sky. The range ratios are also based on the constellation's right ascension and declination listed on Wikipedia:

Right ascension 22h 57m 04.5897s–03h 41m 14.0997s

Declination 77.6923447°–48.6632690°

en.wikipedia.org/wik...iopeia_constellation

I actually developed this idea quite a while ago now but have not felt audacious enough to introduce a new harmonic pattern, let alone 3 at the same time! But I have since been able to run backtests on tick data going back to 2002 across a variety of market and timeframe combinations and have learned that the Cassiopeia patterns can certainly hold their own against the currently known harmonic patterns. As can be seen in the picture above the bullish Cassiopeia A caught the 2009 bear market bottom almost perfectly.

I would also point out that the Cassiopeia constellation does actually look like a harmonic pattern and the Cassiopeia A star is literally the 'strongest source of radio emission in the sky beyond the solar system', so its arguably more of a real harmonic phenomenon than the current patterns.

www.britannica.com/place/Cassiopeia-A

chandra.si.edu/sound/casa.html

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**CONCEPTS**

**Green and Red Candles**

• A green candle is one that closes with a close price equal to or above the price it opened.

• A red candle is one that closes with a close price that is lower than the price it opened.

**Swing Highs and Swing Lows**

• A swing high is a green candle or series of consecutive green candles followed by a single red candle to complete the swing and form the peak.

• A swing low is a red candle or series of consecutive red candles followed by a single green candle to complete the swing and form the trough.

**Peak and Trough Prices (Basic)**

• The peak price of a complete swing high is the high price of either the red candle that completes the swing high or the high price of the preceding green candle, depending on which is higher.

• The trough price of a complete swing low is the low price of either the green candle that completes the swing low or the low price of the preceding red candle, depending on which is lower.

**Historic Peaks and Troughs**

The current, or most recent, peak and trough occurrences are referred to as occurrence zero. Previous peak and trough occurrences are referred to as historic and ordered numerically from right to left, with the most recent historic peak and trough occurrences being occurrence one.

**Range**

The range is simply the difference between the current peak and current trough prices, generally expressed in terms of points or pips.

**Upper Trends**

• A return line uptrend is formed when the current peak price is higher than the preceding peak price.

• A downtrend is formed when the current peak price is lower than the preceding peak price.

• A double-top is formed when the current peak price is equal to the preceding peak price.

**Lower Trends**

• An uptrend is formed when the current trough price is higher than the preceding trough price.

• A return line downtrend is formed when the current trough price is lower than the preceding trough price.

• A double-bottom is formed when the current trough price is equal to the preceding trough price.

**Muti-Part Upper and Lower Trends**

• A multi-part return line uptrend begins with the formation of a new return line uptrend and continues until a new downtrend ends the trend.

• A multi-part downtrend begins with the formation of a new downtrend and continues until a new return line uptrend ends the trend.

• A multi-part uptrend begins with the formation of a new uptrend and continues until a new return line downtrend ends the trend.

• A multi-part return line downtrend begins with the formation of a new return line downtrend and continues until a new uptrend ends the trend.

**Double Trends**

• A double uptrend is formed when the current trough price is higher than the preceding trough price and the current peak price is higher than the preceding peak price.

• A double downtrend is formed when the current peak price is lower than the preceding peak price and the current trough price is lower than the preceding trough price.

**Muti-Part Double Trends**

• A multi-part double uptrend begins with the formation of a new uptrend that proceeds a new return line uptrend, and continues until a new downtrend or return line downtrend ends the trend.

• A multi-part double downtrend begins with the formation of a new downtrend that proceeds a new return line downtrend, and continues until a new uptrend or return line uptrend ends the trend.

**Wave Cycles**

A wave cycle is here defined as a complete two-part move between a swing high and a swing low, or a swing low and a swing high. The first swing high or swing low will set the course for the sequence of wave cycles that follow; for example a chart that begins with a swing low will form its first complete wave cycle upon the formation of the first complete swing high and vice versa.

Figure 1.

**Retracement and Extension Ratios**

Retracement and extension ratios are calculated by dividing the current range by the preceding range and multiplying the answer by 100. Retracement ratios are those that are equal to or below 100% of the preceding range and extension ratios are those that are above 100% of the preceding range.

**Fibonacci Retracement and Extension Ratios**

The Fibonacci sequence is a series of numbers in which each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers, starting with 0 and 1. For example 0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 1 = 2, 1 + 2 = 3, and so on. Ultimately, we could go on forever but the first few numbers in the sequence are as follows: 0 , 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144.

The extension ratios are calculated by dividing each number in the sequence by the number preceding it. For example 0/1 = 0, 1/1 = 1, 2/1 = 2, 3/2 = 1.5, 5/3 = 1.6666..., 8/5 = 1.6, 13/8 = 1.625, 21/13 = 1.6153..., 34/21 = 1.6190..., 55/34 = 1.6176..., 89/55 = 1.6181..., 144/89 = 1.6179..., and so on. The retracement ratios are calculated by inverting this process and dividing each number in the sequence by the number proceeding it. For example 0/1 = 0, 1/1 = 1, 1/2 = 0.5, 2/3 = 0.666..., 3/5 = 0.6, 5/8 = 0.625, 8/13 = 0.6153..., 13/21 = 0.6190..., 21/34 = 0.6176..., 34/55 = 0.6181..., 55/89 = 0.6179..., 89/144 = 0.6180..., and so on.

1.618 is considered to be the 'golden ratio', found in many natural phenomena such as the growth of seashells and the branching of trees. Some now speculate the universe oscillates at a frequency of 0,618 Hz, which could help to explain such phenomena, but this theory has yet to be proven.

Traders and analysts use Fibonacci retracement and extension indicators, consisting of horizontal lines representing different Fibonacci ratios, for identifying potential levels of support and resistance. Fibonacci ranges are typically drawn from left to right, with retracement levels representing ratios inside of the current range and extension levels representing ratios extended outside of the current range. If the current wave cycle ends on a swing low, the Fibonacci range is drawn from peak to trough. If the current wave cycle ends on a swing high the Fibonacci range is drawn from trough to peak.

**Harmonic Patterns**

The concept of harmonic patterns in trading was first introduced by H.M. Gartley in his book "Profits in the Stock Market", published in 1935. Gartley observed that markets have a tendency to move in repetitive patterns, and he identified several specific patterns that he believed could be used to predict future price movements.

Since then, many other traders and analysts have built upon Gartley's work and developed their own variations of harmonic patterns. One such contributor is Larry Pesavento, who developed his own methods for measuring harmonic patterns using Fibonacci ratios. Pesavento has written several books on the subject of harmonic patterns and Fibonacci ratios in trading. Another notable contributor to harmonic patterns is Scott Carney, who developed his own approach to harmonic trading in the late 1990s and also popularised the use of Fibonacci ratios to measure harmonic patterns. Carney expanded on Gartley's work and also introduced several new harmonic patterns, such as the Shark pattern and the 5-0 pattern.

The bullish and bearish Gartley patterns are the oldest recognized harmonic patterns in trading and all the other harmonic patterns are ultimately modifications of the original Gartley patterns. Gartley patterns are fundamentally composed of 5 points, or 4 waves.

**Bullish and Bearish Cassiopeia A Harmonic Patterns**

• Bullish Cassiopeia A patterns are fundamentally composed of three troughs and two peaks. The second peak being higher than the first peak. And the third trough being higher than both the first and second troughs, while the second trough is also higher than the first.

• Bearish Cassiopeia A patterns are fundamentally composed of three peaks and two troughs. The second trough being lower than the first trough. And the third peak being lower than both the first and second peaks, while the second peak is also lower than the first.

The ratio measurements I use to detect the patterns are as follows:

• Wave 1 of the pattern, generally referred to as XA, has no specific ratio requirements.

• Wave 2 of the pattern, generally referred to as AB, should retrace by at least 11.34%, but no further than 22.31% of the range set by wave 1.

• Wave 3 of the pattern, generally referred to as BC, should extend by at least 225.7%, but no further than 341% of the range set by wave 2.

• Wave 4 of the pattern, generally referred to as CD, should retrace by at least 77.69%, but no further than 88.66% of the range set by wave 3.

**Measurement Tolerances**

In general, tolerance in measurements refers to the allowable variation or deviation from a specific value or dimension. It is the range within which a particular measurement is considered to be acceptable or accurate. In this script I have applied this concept to the measurement of harmonic pattern ratios to increase to the frequency of pattern occurrences.

For example, the AB measurement of Gartley patterns is generally set at around 61.8%, but with such specificity in the measuring requirements the patterns are very rare. We can increase the frequency of pattern occurrences by setting a tolerance. A tolerance of 10% to both downside and upside, which is the default setting for all tolerances, means we would have a tolerable measurement range between 51.8-71.8%, thus increasing the frequency of occurrence.

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**FEATURES**

**Inputs**

• AB Lower Tolerance

• AB Upper Tolerance

• BC Lower Tolerance

• BC Upper Tolerance

• CD Lower Tolerance

• CD Upper Tolerance

• Pattern Color

• Label Color

• Show Projections

• Extend Current Projection Lines

**Alerts**

Users can set alerts for when the patterns occur.

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**LIMITATIONS**

All green and red candle calculations are based on differences between open and close prices, as such I have made no attempt to account for green candles that gap lower and close below the close price of the preceding candle, or red candles that gap higher and close above the close price of the preceding candle. This may cause some unexpected behaviour on some markets and timeframes. I can only recommend using 24-hour markets, if and where possible, as there are far fewer gaps and, generally, more data to work with.

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**NOTES**

I know a few people have been requesting a single indicator that contains all my patterns and I definitely hear you on that one. However, I have been very busy working on other projects while trying to trade and be a human at the same time. For now I am going to maintain my original approach of releasing each pattern individually so as to maintain consistency. But I am now also working on getting my some of my libraries ready for public release and in doing so I will finally be able to fit all patterns into one script. I will also be giving my scripts some TLC by making them cleaner once I have the libraries up and running. Please bear with me in the meantime, this may take a while. Cheers!

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Updated the alert message.